Breast cancer affects 1 in 1,000 men.
By comparison, a woman’s risk of developing the disease is 1 in 8.
That divide is a likely reason why most males don’t think breast cancer can affect them — or check themselves for chest lumps that could indicate the presence of cancer.
And if a problem does arise, they might be slower or more reluctant to seek care than the opposite sex.
“Men don’t think it’s breast cancer; they think it’s something else,” says Annette Schork, R.N., a representative for University of Michigan Comprehensive Cancer Center’s Cancer AnswerLine. “As with any cancer, the chances of it spreading are high if you wait.”
Approximately 2,470 new cases of invasive breast cancer will be diagnosed in men this year, according to the American Cancer Society; about 460 are expected to be fatal.
The number of annual cases relative to population growth, the cancer society notes, has remained stable in recent decades.
Although a man’s risk remains low, having proper knowledge can be lifesaving, Schork says.
She and Kim Zapor, R.N., also a member of the Cancer AnswerLine team, spoke more about breast cancer and how it affects men.
Male breast cancer: 5 important facts
It’s easier for men to detect: Men often have less breast tissue, so a lump can be more evident compared to what might be found during a woman’s self-exam or mammogram.
“Even if they ignore it, it’s probably more noticeable — that’s the advantage that men have,” Zapor says. A lump, she notes, may appear around the nipple or underarm; skin may also “pucker” or retract.
Family history plays a role: Having first-degree relatives such as a sibling or parent affected by breast cancer — “especially another man who has had it,” Schork notes — put men at increased risk.
So does the presence of BRCA1 and BRCA2, inherited gene mutations linked to breast cancer in both genders. A less common culprit: Klinefelter syndrome, a congenital condition.
Age and personal health do, too: As is the case with women, a man is more likely to develop breast cancer as he gets older — around age 68 and beyond, the American Cancer Society says.
Universal factors include being overweight, liver disease and certain prostate cancer treatments (“anything that’s altering hormone levels and causing more estrogen in the body,” Zapor says).
Diagnosis and treatment don’t change: After a male patient’s initial discovery, doctors will perform a mammogram or ultrasound and then biopsy his tissue.
Says Zapor: “It depends on the stage, but men are pretty much treated the same way.” That would include surgery (mastectomy is most typical) followed, if necessary, by chemotherapy and/or radiation.
Awareness and vigilance are key: Men don’t get regular mammograms. With knowledge about their risk factors and an easier means of feeling for lumps, then, guys should visit their doctor at the first sign of concern, Schork says.
They might also discuss genetic testing, as a BRCA mutation can heighten a man’s risk for other cancers. It also can be passed on to his kids.